You frequently tap and click on devices, using the internet to find answers to your queries, keep up with current affairs, and maintain connections with individuals in your immediate environment.
The current internet, however, is rather new and has evolved through time. Many people did not grow up with the internet, unlike many young people today. So, when did the internet start to exist? Who created it, too? For you, we have the solutions.
The internet was created when?
Although many people believe that the internet was first used on January 1, 1983, the process of developing it began long before the necessary technological infrastructure existed.
According to History.com, the development of the internet required the work of numerous scientists and engineers, many of whom had a vision for the internet before the necessary technology was developed. Inventor Nikola Tesla had an idea for a “global wireless system” as early as the early 1900s. (Yes, Tesla, the maker of electric vehicles, is named after him.)
When Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider conceived of the idea of using computer networks for communication, the early 1960s, according to History.com, “the first practical schematics for the internet would not emerge.”
Computers had previously mostly been employed in mathematics as tools to accelerate computations.
Soon after, “packet switching,” a technique for transmitting electronic data, was developed by computer scientists. According to History.com, this would develop into a significant building piece for the internet.
The “first functional prototype of the Internet” was born in the late 1960s with the establishment of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, which was supported by the US Department of Defense. Multiple computers could connect with one another over a same network thanks to ARPANET.
On October 29, 1969, a message was sent via ARPANET for the first time between two computers, one at Stanford and the other at the University of California, Los Angeles. Each computer was about the size of a small house, and the network was destroyed by the simple “LOGIN” word. According to History.com, Stanford only received the first two letters.
With the help of two scientists, Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf, technology advanced into the 1970s. They created a “communications model” that standardised how data was carried over numerous networks. On January 1, 1983, ARPANET implemented this, giving rise to the “modern” internet.
The Internet’s founding fathers
The US defence department’s research division, Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), now known as Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), established the ARPANet computer network in 1969.
In many ways, ARPANet was the forerunner of the Internet as we know it today since it connected computers at universities, governmental organisations, and defence contractors around the world. Let’s not jump forward; by 1975, ARPANet had expanded to a network with more than 60 nodes.
The first data was transferred through an interface message processor switch from a host at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) on September 2, 1969. (a piece of network equipment). Charley Kline, a UCLA student, sent the first message through this forerunner to the internet at 10:30 PM on October 29, 1969. Kline attempted to type “login,” but the system could only send “lo” to a computer at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), located several hundred miles away, before it failed. The first message delivered over the internet and the first server crash occurred simultaneously, making this a world first twice.
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At the time, computers were actually enormous mainframes that played a crucial part in the military’s computing and communication needs.
ARPANet, however, faced a significant issue. The network had to be able to communicate with terminals thousands of miles away in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, or any other of the US military’s 800 bases dispersed in more than 70 nations across the world in order for military and intelligence operations to be effective.
This was quite difficult. Engineers had to devise a method of connecting these wireless nodes with the wired network at ARPANet, where the nation’s most potent computers were housed, in addition to networking the military’s widely spread terminals by radio and satellite.
Networking two or more computers was far easier than getting networks to talk to one another. Since each network handled data in a different way, information transfer became nearly impossible. There was a need for action, which is where two exceptionally talented ARPA researchers named Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn stepped in.
The two created a new communication architecture with a set of universal rules in 1973, effectively enabling computer networks to communicate in the same language.
In order to guarantee the accurate flow of data, this new architecture was required to include tight regulations. However, the regulations also needed to be adaptable enough to take into account the various kinds of data that could be communicated. You see, Cerf and Kahn built their inter-network communication protocol for scalability from the beginning; this proved to be crucial for the enormous development the internet would later go through, which beyond even the wildest predictions of its founders.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), a packet-switching system, was developed on four main tenets:
Connectivity to a network
Any network could establish a gateway connection to another network.
Distribution. There wouldn’t be any central management or control of the network.
recovering from errors Retransmission of lost packets would take place.
black box concept. A network could be connected to other networks without requiring any internal changes.
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The World Wide Web is what?
According to Britannica, Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web, or WWW, in 1990. This is what most people think of as the internet today and it enables users to link to other web pages using hypertext.
While websites are a typical way to access information on the internet, the term “World Wide Web” is frequently misused to refer to the entire internet. The World Wide Web aided in the growth of the internet, claims History.com.
When did Google start out?
The two, who at first called it Backrub, set out to develop a search engine that could “use links to determine the relevance of particular pages on the World Wide Web,” in the words of Google.
In order to emphasise their goal of making information accessible to everyone, Page and Brin later changed the company’s name to Google, a “play on the mathematical formula for the number 1 followed by 100 zeros.”
Silicon Valley investors became interested in Google, which led to the establishment of Google Inc. in August 1998. The company is noteworthy for having originated in a garage, where Page and Brin later relocated their headquarters.